El Espartano

Manufacturing Process


El Espartano under goes a complex and diverse manufacturing process as each carpet and rug have different yarns – wool, nylon, polyester – and manufacturing procedures are involved.

Wool Carpets
Manufacturing this type of carpet is long and complex. Wool is a natural fiber produced by sheep and other animals, the process is called shearing and there are two ways of shearing:
• Scissors: traditional shearing is done with scissors, a trained sheep shearer or clipper can strip a sheep from its wool in a matter of minutes.
• Shearing or clipping machine: featuring two electrical blades.
The fleece must be taken in a whole piece. The shearer or clipper must cut close to the skin. Short fibers are difficult to process.

Wool Selection
There are a number of characteristics, such as the sheep-breed and its breeding environment, to take into account when selecting wool.
However the most important features are:
Fineness, Length, Curl consistency and quality, Uniformity, resistance and stretching, Resilience, Color, Shine, Performance.

The most valuable wools come from three to four year old sheep. Some sheep breeds can yield one to three kilos of thick wool yearly. Fleece quality and cleanness is closely linked to the body part where it comes from. It is important to classify correctly the fleece so as to have a uniform thread.

After shearing and once the fleece has been classified the following processes are taken:
• The fleece is washed with hot water and beaten to extract any organic debris attached, finally it is rinsed in cold water.
• The wool is dried outdoors on a flat surface or spin-dried.
• Wool is combed and cleaned with a sharp toothed instrument in order to disentangle the fibers and helps after use and washing to keep its original shape.
• Spinning wool the fibers are twisted up to the required thickness.
• A two thread yarn is made by twisting two threads together. The objective is to achieve better resistance to wear.
• The yarn is put through a skein winder.
• The skeins are then washed with soap so as to eliminate any debris that might still linger. After washing, the wool is used in its natural color or dyed.
• Dyeing: Skeins are put in a dyeing machine which are then filled with water. Once the necessary water has been added it is put to boil and color added, finally chemicals to set the color.

Nylon Carpets
El Espartano gets bulk continuous filament cones from well know international providers such as Invista or Solutia among others.
Then the company takes the following steps:

Twisting. Two nylon threads are twisted together and the resulting two ply yarn is then readied for dyeing.

Yarn. 
1. Cone reel dye. Machines that dye cones need special size reels. Through a winding procedure big reels are transferred to smaller ones.
2. Skein dye. Machines that dye skeins require skeins so reels must be turned skeins which are then dyed.

Spinning. Reels and skeins must be spun to extract as much water as possible.

Drying. Once spun, cone reels and skeins are put to dry in ovens. Temperature and timing are regulated depending on the type of yarn.

Winding. Skeins once dried must be winded back onto cone reels. Dyed cone reels skip this step.

Warp. Through this process big reels are loaded from many grouped reels. These are the reels that will feed the looms where carpets are made.

Weave.The loom is set with the reels and then the weaving begins. Tufting machines are fed from warp reels or from the reel shelf.

Cut pile. The carpet rolls are then put through a several cylinders with blades that cut the pile, this leaves the carpet surface even and a final touch.

Latex base glue. A coat of latex is applied in ovens to anchor the yarn then secondary backing material is applied to the fabric back to provide dimensional stability and strength.

Polypropylene carpets
Extrusion. Modern machines extruded the yarn with polypropylene chips and masterbatch (dyes) providing the selected colours.

Warp. Through this process big reels are loaded from many grouped reels. These are the reels that will feed the looms where carpets are made.

Weave.The loom is set with the reels and then the weaving begins. Tufting machines are fed from warp reels or from the reel shelf.

Latex base glue. A coat of latex is applied in ovens to anchor the yarn then secondary backing material is applied to the fabric back to provide dimensional stability and strength.


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

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